For the first time in Australia, national data have been collected on five-year observed survival by stage at diagnosis for sixteen major childhood (paediatric) cancers for children aged 0-14 years. This measure comprises initial data on stage at diagnosis for selected cancers from 2006-2010 inclusive. Five-year observed survival was determined by a follow-up on mortality status to 31 Dec 2014. These data are presented by the disease-specific staging systems for the childhood cancer types listed in the table below. Together, these cancer types represent approximately three-quarters of all childhood cancers diagnosed in Australia2.
Childhood cancer stage at diagnosis has been determined using Business Rules for deriving stage based on the Toronto Paediatric Cancer Stage Guidelines1, 7. Due to differences in the stage categories used for different cancers, the charts for this measure have been grouped as follows:
|Chart tab name||Stage categories||Type of cancer||Broad tissue of origin*|
|Ependymoma||Brain and central nervous system|
|Ewing sarcoma||Bone, or soft tissue around bones|
|Medulloblastoma||Brain and central nervous system|
|Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma||Soft tissues of the body|
|Rhabdomyosarcoma||Soft tissues of the body|
|L/R/M||Localised, Regional, Metastatic||Ovarian cancer||Ovary|
|CNS-/CNS+||No Central Nervous System involvement (CNS-), Central Nervous System involvement (CNS+)||Acute lymphoid leukaemia||Blood and bone marrow|
|Acute myeloid leukaemia||Blood and bone marrow|
|Hodgkin lymphoma||1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B||Hodgkin lymphoma||Lymphatic system/ lymphocytes|
|Non-Hodgkin lymphoma||Limited , Advanced||Non-Hodgkin lymphoma||Lymphatic system/ lymphocytes|
|Neuroblastoma||Localised, Locoregional, Metastatic, MS - metastases confined to skin, liver, and/or bone marrow for children younger than 18 months old at diagnosis||Neuroblastoma||Nervous system|
The “five-year observed survival by stage at diagnosis for childhood cancers” is one of two measures reported on the National Cancer Control Indicators (NCCI) website that are related to childhood cancers. The other measure is the “distribution of childhood cancer stage”. More information about the Business Rules used for data collection, data sources, methods for recording, and guidance for interpreting the data can be found in the ‘About the Data’ tab.
For more information about childhood cancer, please refer to Cancer Australia’s Children’s Cancer website. More data on childhood cancer in Australia can be found at the Cancer Council Queensland’s Australian Childhood Cancer Statistics Online website.